Three realities dominated 1942, the first full year of World War II as it affected Perkasie residents: voluntary enlistment and the military draft; home-defense preparations; and rationed goods.
Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, led to a truly global conflict with the United States getting ready to fight battles on two fronts in early 1942. The daunting task required the full mobilization of all local economies, along with the national economy. The nation also needed 15 million people to join the military in service of their country, with two-thirds of those people inducted via the draft.
Ration points, as well as cash, paid for food
On the home front, domestic labor shortages; restrictions on household goods and raw material purchases; and constant appeals for donations to the war effort were daily facts of life.
In Perkasie (and Bucks County), tires were the first items to be rationed to the general population, and motor vehicle registration became required to track who had tires. Shortly after, tin cans were banned in the use of consumer products such as beans, condiments, and beer. Perkasie also started practicing blackouts as part of a national exercise on January 19, 1942; people not cooperating in the Borough between 9:00 p.m. and 9:25 p.m. faced possible arrest for 30 days or a $100 fine.
Editor’s Note: This five-part series looks at the World War II-era in Perkasie Borough, using accounts from Perkasie’s newspapers and other primary sources. In Part 1, by 1941 defense production leads to an economic boom in Perkasie, but war looms as an inescapable reality.
In January 1941, Perkasie Borough was a town on edge, as it finally recovered from the Great Depression while residents prepared to fight an uncertain war against a despised foe.
The big business in town was pants, and the latest addition to Perkasie Borough’s most significant employer was the new jagged-roof modern clothing factory in South Perkasie. The Royal Pants Factory expansion in South Perkasie (the current location of the Free Will Brewery) was built to supply plants for the defense effort, with nearly 500 workers churning out 1.3 million trousers in 1940. The new building’s walls were 85 percent glass, and architect Charles Talley tailored the establishment to win Army contracts with its efficient production design. Royal Pants was so successful that it had to sublet half of its cloth cutting to other factories.
A.R. Housekeeper’s name is familiar to collectors of early Victorian photos from Bucks and Montgomery counties. But little has been known until recently about a man who played a brief, but important role, in Perkasie’s history.
One of Perkasie’s oldest known photographs was reprinted in the Borough’s 50th-anniversary book in 1929, showing the town as it looked at its founding. It turns out A.R. Housekeeper took the picture, but probably not in 1879. Housekeeper also took several other Perkasie photos in the 1880s that are very rare, in addition to the numerous portraits he made in his traveling photography wagon.
Photo in Perkasie 50th Anniversary Book
Housekeeper’s carte de visite, or CDV, photos are collectibles. The small pictures were produced cheaply on heavier card stock and were a combination of a calling card and a trading card. People had their own CDVs made, kept them as family heirlooms, or swapped them with other people.
The Perkasie Historical Society’s project to digitize editions of the Perkasie Central News from 1881 to 1943 shed a great deal of light on the enigmatic Mr. Housekeeper, who turned out to be a household name in Perkasie for much of the 1880s. Little was known of him personally, except that he swept into town by 1881, and left abruptly by decade’s end. The Central News printed various anecdotes and advertisements about A. R. Housekeeper “the Artistic Photographer” for almost nine years.
Then as fortune had it, Housekeeper’s great-grandson, Jerome Feaster, contacted the society from Shiloh, Florida. Jerome and his family have been researching Housekeeper and had the original Perkasie landscape photograph, along with other mementos of his business career.
The original photo is from 1886-1888 and shows Perkasie’s Opera House on Walnut Street on the far right. Credit/Source: Feaster Family Collection.
This unusual find, combined with their genealogy work, the Historical Society’s newspaper project, and the recent discovery of a brief lifetime diary kept by Housekeeper, show a detailed picture of his short career in Pennsylvania as an itinerant photographer.
Born in 1841 in Hilltown, Pennsylvania, Abraham Housekeeper’s father died when Abraham was just three years old. For the next 14 years, Abraham said he lived with neighbors, and occasionally his mother, in the Hilltown area. He spent much of his time with the Enos Moyer family.
According to his diary, Abraham learned how to make cigars at the age of 16 and began his full-time career in 1859 as a cigar maker in Philadelphia at the age of 19. He also remained in school, where he was taught briefly by another Hilltown resident, Abraham K. Funk, who was just a year older than Housekeeper.
Housekeeper used his penmanship skills for his own calling card trademark. Source: Author’s collection
For the next decade Housekeeper worked locally in Bridgetown, Pa. (now South Perkasie) and Hellertown, Pa. making cigars, but he also traveled to Philadelphia, Newark, New York, and Providence plying his craft. After attending Eastman Business College in Poughkeepsie, New York in 1867 to learn ink-and-pen drawing, Housekeeper started a wholesale cigar business in Chicago.
On a trip back home, Housekeeper met Hannah Kile, from a well-known Mennonite family in Dublin, Pa. They married in 1870 after a brief courtship and started a family in Chicago. However, the Housekeepers fell on hard times. They survived the Great Chicago fire in 1871, but Abraham’s cigar business failed, and Abraham, Hannah, and their son Eugene moved to Philadelphia. Soon after, Eugene died from scarlet fever in Philadelphia, and Abraham picked up work as a photoengraver where he could use his artistic training. For the next few years, Abraham wrote in his diary about how the family split up and reunited as he sought work. He eventually came to Perkasie as a cigar maker, with the family living at his in-law’s home in Rockhill Township.
Typical Housekeeper CDV photo, subject unknown
By 1880, things were looking promising for the Housekeeper family. A daughter, Agnes, and her brother, Sinclair, were joined by a young brother, Thomas, as Abraham Housekeeper finally started his own photography business. Then more tragedy struck. Hannah Kile Housekeeper died from typhoid fever in October 1880 and young Thomas died just weeks later. Suddenly, Abraham Housekeeper found himself in the same situation he experienced as a child.
In 1881, Abraham made the difficult decision to split up his family. Agnes was sent to live in Bethlehem while 6-year-old Sinclair went to Indiana to live with Abraham Funk, who had become co-owner of the Mennonite Publishing Company. At that point, Abraham’s career as a photographer took off. However, his diary record shows that he remembers the time as being “ALONE.”
The Mammoth Photography Wagon. Credit/Source: Feaster Family Collection.
Accounts from the Central News and Housekeeper’s diary show that the Artistic Photographer spent much of his time on the road while renting a room in Perkasie when not working. In 1883, Housekeeper spent 42 weeks traveling in Montgomery County with his photography “car.” In one newspaper item, it was noted that Housekeeper appealed to those who wanted pictures as “reminders of friends who have left this dreary world.” Another touted him as an “artist of considerable merit.” At the same time, Housekeeper frequently advertised in the same newspaper.
By 1884, Housekeeper, 42, kept his “mammoth photography wagon” in Telford, Pa., as he remarried that summer, to Mary C. Miller of Dublin, who was half his age. By March 1886, his daughter Agnes had returned home and Housekeeper had a young son, Emanuel, with Mary, but tragedy struck again in July 1886 when his older son Sinclair, 10, died in a drowning accident in Elkhart, Indiana. The Central News noted that when informed of Sinclair’s death, it was a “severe blow to Mr. Housekeeper.”
Housekeeper had steady work while in Perkasie as a photographer. He also advertised for extra help at the time of the large July 1887 camp-meeting at Perkasie Park, just north of town. The newspaper noted that Housekeeper had just “taken a view” and was also photographing the Sellersville Chair Factory, most likely owned by State Representative John Schwartz, a camp-meeting co-founder.
A.R,. Agnes, Emanuel and Mary (or M. C.) Housekeeper at Perkasie Park. Credit/Source: Feaster Family Collection.
His landscape photo of early Perkasie is likely from the 1886-1888 period since shows the steeple of St. Stephen’s Reformed Church, which was built in 1886. A pair of pictures of the Perkasie Park Camp Meeting taken by Housekeeper are from the same period.
But in 1888, Housekeeper sold his photography business and went back to Philadelphia the following year, and in 1891 the Housekeeper family moved to the Tampa, Florida, area after Abraham had bought land and had a house built before they moved.
For the next three decades, Abraham Housekeeper held various jobs in Florida, including sales positions, making copies of photos, selling marriage directories, farming, and clerking. By 1922, Abraham was unable to work due to health issues, and he passed away in July 1924 at the age of 83 at Agnes’ home in Tampa. On Abraham’s death certificate, his son-in-law informed the coroner that Abraham Housekeeper’s life occupation was “photographer.”
Credit/Source: Feaster Family Collection.
To be sure, Abraham Housekeeper was a man of many talents and many careers who worked for 67 of his 83 years, but he spent only about 9 years as a full-time photographer in our area, according to his diary and newspaper records. That legacy gave us a brief glimpse into life in a long-forgotten era. Or as A.R. wrote on one of his own advertising cards, “You’ll never regret if you have a good picture of every member of your family.”
Author’s Note: Many thanks to the Feaster family for sharing their pictures and records.
Today, some people may take for granted the 122-acre Lake Lenape Park that connects Perkasie and Sellersville Boroughs via the East Branch of the Perkiomen Creek. However, the park almost did not come to pass until local leaders joined with federal and county officials in 1935 to create a gift to “the children of the future,” as one leader called it.
Lost in the remembrances over the July 4th weekend was another event that defines our freedoms today – the anniversary of the epic battle at Gettysburg. Several founders of the Perkasie’s Grand Army of the Republic (or G.A.R.) post were probably on that battlefield, and there is one brief eyewitness account from them.
The confrontation at Gettysburg concluded on July 4, 1863 when General Robert E. Lee withdrew his Army of Northern Virginia from town. During fighting from July 1 to July 3, combined casualties were estimated at over 45,000, with nearly 8,000 deaths of Union and Confederate soldiers. It was the deadliest battle of the Civil War and effectively ended the chances of a Confederate victory in the Civil War.
In 1965, author and humanitarian Pearl Buck was asked to write a brief letter for a marketing brochure for the Pennridge region. This long-lost piece of history shows how much this legendary figure valued her neighbors.
Pearl Buck at Pennridge High School, 1969
By that time, Buck had lived in Hilltown Township for 30 years since moving there with her husband, publisher Richard Walsh. In fact, she was well-known as “Mrs. Walsh” in the community. In 1949, Buck along with several friends, founded Welcome House, an early effort to promote the adoption of biracial children. Richard Walsh passed away in 1960. But Buck continued to remain part of the Pennridge community.
When Buck formed Welcome House, she turned to Lloyd and Viola Yoder to help the first children placed in new homes become accepted. Today, Lloyd is better known as the legendary Pennridge football coach Poppy Yoder. When Yoder died in 1967, the Perkasie News Herald’s Buzz Cressman noted Yoder’s role in making Buck’s vision a reality. “The fact that Pearl Buck chose Poppy Yoder to train and guide her Asian-American children in his home was the supreme compliment to this man.”
The Nobel Prize recipient appeared at Pennridge High School on numerous occasions, as well as at PTA meetings, 4H gatherings and the Perkasie Lions Club. In 1957, the school invited Buck to its graduation. Buck was the first woman to address a local graduating class as a featured speaker, the News-Herald reported. She spoke to the largest crowd gathered, at the time, at the high school.
“You are ready to step out into the world, never lose sight of the fact that we are true Americans to the degree that we practice our ideals. … It is our belief in freedom, human equality, equal opportunity and the freedom to pursue our rights that makes us great. Everybody cares what we do because we stand for these ancestral ideals. Money doesn’t influence other nations as much as our practicing of our ideals. Our weak spot is where we fall down in our practicing of our ideals in race prejudice. The price of ideals is the practice of them. The price is high, but the rewards are great.”
In her letter to the Pennridge marketers in 1965, Buck explained why the community meant so much to her. “I shall always be grateful to the people of the Pennridge area. Why? For many reasons, for they have been good neighbors to me, allowing me to live here in peaceful privacy to do my work. I welcome this opportunity to express my love and appreciation,” she said.
“Yes, I have many reasons to be grateful to the people of this area, but foremost perhaps is the help they have given and do give to Welcome House, an adoption agency set up nearly nineteen years ago, especially for children of Asian-American ancestry, born in the United States. I had never thought of an adoption agency as part of my life and work. But I was given two babies, one Christmas, and these were what today we call Amerasian children, the name suggested by the State Department in Washington. My husband and I were already beyond the age of small babies, we had a house full of children as it was, and I looked for an adoption agency.”
“No one would accept these children of mixed race. I thought then of finding kindly families of our neighborhood who would care for these children, and others like them, in their own homes.”
“I did not wish to introduce a new element into our neighborhood, however, without finding out first how our neighbors would feel about it. Therefore I invited our leading citizens to meet in our home, and after describing the situation I said I could only bring these children into our area if the people here would welcome them and accept them as part of our life. I was happy when the elder Mr. Stauffer, owner of the store in Dublin, said, “We will be proud to have these children.”
“The first group of nine children joined the family of Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd Yoder. They have grown up now, some are married and have children of their own. Some are going to college. All have been happy in our schools, and neighborhood activities, and I thank the kind people who have made this possible. I believe that it has been worthwhile for all of us, for these children, born Americans, though they are, have brought the world into our community, and for this we thank them. Not every community can learn so pleasantly, day by day, how to live together in one world.”
Buck concluded: “Two small lost children appeared in our neighborhood one day, and thanks to the kindness of the people in Pennridge, thousands of children in the world are finding new opportunities for life.”
The occasion of Memorial Day, or Decoration Day as it was once called, is nearly as old as Perkasie Borough itself. While the holiday as evolved over time, its importance remains with us as a solemn reminder of the price paid for our freedoms.
Informal ceremonies to honor the war dead started regionally in America toward the end of the Civil War. Initially called Decoration Day, people made sure the graves of Union and Confederate participants were decorated with flowers on May 30 each year. That was the most-observed date for Memorial Day until 1971, when a federal act moved the federal holiday to the last Monday in May. (Not all states observed the date change and there is still some controversy about it.)
This 1899 photo is likely the annual Decoration Day parade, based on newspaper accounts
In late September 1918, the Pennridge region was deeply involved in the effort to end World War I. Little did people know the Spanish flu epidemic had arrived in their own backyard, starting perhaps the toughest five-month period in our local history.
Today, the 1918-1919 global influenza pandemic is getting new attention as America deals with the COVID-19 outbreak. To be sure, the coronavirus situation deserves public scrutiny and preparedness. But any comparison to the Spanish flu epidemic should be made with great caution.
As a public service, here is basic information about federal, state and local programs to provide financial help, along with social services, during the COVID-19 Crisis, to individuals, families, and businesses.
The list will be updated as more news becomes available about government and community charity programs related to Bucks County. Please check your community pages on Facebook about efforts related to your town run by more local groups.
There is one topic dominating local talk in the Pennridge region this winter, and it is not the upcoming presidential election. The fight over an old quarry containing naturally occurring asbestos is the talk of our region, and its 45,000 residents.
Mention the name “Rockhill Quarry” in East Rockhill Township at the grocery store, your church, a local restaurant, or on social media, and you will surely get a response. And the Rockhill Quarry is indeed old. The Perkasie Central News archives show granite was discovered there in 1888. By 1890, early quarry operators were “getting out blocks for building purposes and road paving,” at a time when few roads were paved. The General Crushed Stone Company began operations there in 1903, providing materials for “macadamizing, cement work and building purposes.”